Diabetics most frequently die of cardiovascular disease. Diabetics also have a greater incidence of vitamin D deficiency which can double the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
So what is the relationship of all of this to macrophage adhesion? It is macrophage adhesion that is involved in the development of atherosclerosis which is what leads to heart disease.
This study looked at vitamin D effects on monocytes that are extracted from diabetics that were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D was successful in reducing this inflammation in vitro.
Vitamin D is such a cheap supplement that you should make sure your doctor tests you vitamin D levels and that you keep supplementing to maintain normal levels diabetic or not.
Read more at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24184871