Sage (Saliva officinalis) is indigenous to the Mediterranean region and has naturalized in all of Europe. It is cultivated in North America. Sage leaves and oil can be used for medicinal purposes. Sage contains a volatile oil that is considered responsible for the pharmacological activity. The volatile oil contains rosmarinic acid, carvacrol, and luteolin - all have antioxidant properties. Cirsiliol, linalool, and alpha-terpineol, other constituents, all influence the central nervous system. The geraniol constituents exert estrogenic activity. Other constituents of sage display anti-inflammatory acticity. The 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, and caryophyllene epoxide constituents are attributed with anticholinesterase activity.
Sage is a rich source of beta-carotene. It is primarily valued as a seasoning. Sage is mostly taken for loss of appetite, sore throat, and excessive perspiration. In folk medicine, Sage is also taken for bloating, diarrhea, and intestinal inflammation. As a rinse and gargle, it's used for bleeding gums. Applied externally, it treats mild injuries and skin inflammation. In Asia, it's considered a remedy for hemorrhoids, blood in the urine, bloody phlegm, and fluid in the abdomen.
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Cautions Orally, sage can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, agitation, and wheezing.